Paroxysmal dyskinesia is an episodic movement disorder, which typically manifests as involuntary, sometimes repetitive movements, muscle cramps and tremor. The disease has an often unknown neurological or muscular cause.

Canine Epileptoid Cramping Syndrome (CECS) has been reported in Border Terriers and some other dog breeds. This disease has been suggested to be a form of canine paroxysmal dyskinesia. However, it is not yet confirmed whether epileptic activity in the brain is involved in this disease.

Please find here more information about our Epilepsy and CECS projects:




Study breeds:

Border Terriers and other Terrier breeds in particular. We are also interested in hearing about this condition in other breeds. 


Dogs eligible for study:

We collect samples from dogs with episodic movement disorders due to unknown neurological or muscular cause.


Copies of diagnoses and other information needed:

Disease diary, clinical results, possible post-mortem report.



Further information on sending blood samples.

A sample form to be sent along with the blood samples.

An electronic form for details and updates of dog's health and owner's contact information.

We collect detailed information from all sampled dogs with dyskinesia episodes with an epilepsy questionnaire. Please download the questionnaire from this web page, fill it out and send to us by e-mail.


Contact person: Tiina Heinonen (tiina.heinonen(at)helsinki.fi)




Black et al. 2013: Phenotypic characterisation of canine epileptoid cramping syndrome in the Border terrier. Journal of Small Animal Practise 55, 102–107.